# Physics

## About Us

Located on the beautiful, Lakeshore campus of Loyola Univeristy Chicago in Cudahy Science Hall, the Department of Physics prepares students for future STEM careers. Students in the Department of Physics will learn the principles of physics, contribute to new physical knowledge and seek to foster scientific integrity. These goals are consistent with the mission of Loyola University Chicago: searching for truth and living for others. The Department strives to create a welcoming environment for its students that encourages student success and supports their well being as they work toward their career goals at Loyola. The Department and the Physics Club hold several social events each year to build community among the Loyola physics students and faculty.

We offer several undergraduate degree plans with BS degree programs in Physics, Biophysics, Theoretical Physics/Applied Mathematics and Physics/Computer Science. We also offer a special dual degree in physics and engineering, wherein students receive a BS in Physics from Loyola and a bachelor of engineering degree from an affiliated school. In collaboration with the School of Education, the department also offers a BS/MEd degree that prepares students to teach in high schools. In addition, the department serves a large number of students seeking to satisfy ancillary requirements for other majors, core curriculum requirements, as well as pre-health-professional requirements for medical, dental, and pharmacy schools.

The Department has several areas of active physics research, including astroparticle physics, computational physics, cosmology, biophysics, fluid dynamics, optics, and quantum mechanics. Students have the opportunity to explore these different areas of physics research with faculty and are encouraged to participate in projects. Students often present their research at local and national conferences, and they can receive fellowships from LUC to support their research.

You can read more about the undergraduate experience offered by the Physics Department here. Please explore the website or contact the department chair for more information about our department.

**Loyola Physics Department**

300 Cudahy Science Hall

1032 W. Sheridan Rd.

Chicago, Illinois 60660

Phone: 773.508.3533

Fax: 773.508.3534

## Physics in the Science Core

The Physics Department offers several courses for non-science majors seeking to satisfy natural science core curriculum requirements: PHYS 101 Liberal Arts Physics, PHYS 102 Planetary and Stellar Astronomy, and PHYS 106 Physics of Music. These courses emphasize an appreciation of the basic laws, overall structure, and beauty of the physical universe. In addition, as part of the natural science core, these courses discuss the scientific method, and stress the importance of methodological competence as well as ethics in forming critical judgments on technically oriented societal issues. More information on Loyola's Core Curriculum can be found here.

## Physics Department Academic Policies

### Mathematics Readiness

Entering students with American College Test (ACT) mathematics scores of 25 or higher, or Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) mathematics scores of 570 or higher, automatically qualify to start the sequence of physics courses for the major in physics. Students who do not so qualify should consult the physics chairperson to determine the appropriate sequence of courses.

### Policy on Multiple Majors and Minors

The following modifies and clarifies the "Double-Dipping" policy of the College of Arts & Sciences, as it pertains to the Department of Physics.

The following degree programs are housed in or jointly housed in the Physics Department:

- Bachelor of Science in Physics (PHYS-BS)
- Bachelor of Science in Biophysics (BPHY-BS)
- Bachelor of Science in Physics with Computer Science (PCSC-BS)
- Bachelor of Science in Theoretical Physics/Applied Mathematics (TPAM-BS)
- Physics Minor (PHYS-MINR)

They will be referred to as “majors or minor in the Physics Department” in this document.

- A combination of PHYS-BS and PCSC-BS
**is not allowed**. - Any other combination of two majors in the Physics Department (aside from PCSC-BS)
**is allowed.** - Any combination of three majors in the Physics Department
**is not allowed**. - PHYS-MINR
**is not allowed**together with any major housed in Physics Department. - A Mathematics Minor (MATH-MINR)
**is not allowed**together with TPAM-BS, but**is allowed**with any other major in the Physics Department. For qualifying students, the MATH-MINR may be earned by taking**one**additional, upper-level mathematics course (MATH 3XX). - A Computer Science Minor (COMP-MINR)
**is not allowed**together with PCSC-BS. - An Information Technology Minor (ITEC-MINR)
**is not allowed**together with PCSC-BS. - The combination of a B.S. in Mathematics (MATH-BS) and any single major housed in the Physics department
**is allowed**. - A triple major of MATH-BS, TPAM-BS, and any other major housed in the Physics Department
**is not allowed**. - A triple-major combination of PCSC-BS, PHYS-BS, and any of the following: B.S. in “Communication Networks and Security” (CNWS-BS), “Computer Science” (COMP-BS), “Information Technology” (ITEC-BS), or “Software Engineering” (SWEN-BS) is
**not allowed**. - A triple-major combination of PHYS-BS, BPHY-BS, and any of the following: B.S. in Biology (BIOL-BS), Biology with Molecular Biology Emphasis (BIOM-BS), or Biology with Ecology Emphasis (BIOE-BS)
**is not allowed**.

### Grade Requirements

A grade of "C-" or better must be earned in all physics courses required for the major or minor in physics.

### Continuation in the Major

A student will be withdrawn from any major offered by the Physics Department if either of the following conditions exist:

- The student receives two grades less than C- (excluding grades of W but including grades of WF) in a two year period in courses required for the major (including courses offered by the Math and Computer Science departments).
- The student has a cumulative GPA in majors’ courses (including the ancillary courses) less than 2.00 after completion of the first two year sequence (i.e., upon completion of MATH 264 Ordinary Differential Equations and PHYS 301 Mathematical Methods in Physics and PHYS 314 Theoretical Mechanics I).

The chair of the Physics Department may reinstate the student in exceptional cases.

### Prerequisite Courses

PHYS 121 College Physics I Lec/Dis and PHYS 122 College Physics II Lec/Dis are basic prerequisites for all physics courses. PHYS 111 College Physics I Lec / Dis, PHYS 112 College Physics II Lec/Disc will be accepted in lieu of these courses with the permission of the department chairperson. Mathematics courses listed as prerequisites to a physics course may, with the permission of the chairperson, be taken concurrently with the physics course or may be excluded in special instances. MATH 264 Ordinary Differential Equations is a prerequisite to all 300 level physics courses. Part II of a given course may not be taken before Part I.

### Advanced Placement in Physics

Entering non-majors who have received scores of 4 or higher on the Physics B or Physics C Advanced Placement examinations of the College Entrance Examination Board are eligible to receive college credit for the corresponding lecture courses. A score of 4 or higher in the Physics C examination, plus departmental approval, are necessary for receipt of credit by majors. No credit is available for laboratory courses.

### Requirements for Departmental Honors

In addition to the general requirements for the major, a student seeking departmental honors must satisfy the following two criteria:

- Minimum overall GPA of 3.7
- Department-approved research project that culminates in a journal article, seminar presentation, or conference proceeding.

Qualifying students must email the Department Chair (Constantin Rasinariu) for departmental approval. Students should then submit the approval to their CAS advisor.

## Undergraduate Policies and Procedures

Please see Undergraduate Policies and Procedures for academic policies that supersede those of academic units within the University.

## Physics (PHYS)

**PHYS 101**

**Liberal Arts Physics**

**(3 Credit Hours)**

*Knowledge Area:*Tier 2 Scientific Knowledge

**Outcomes**

Understanding of interaction between theory and experiment, role of physics in society, science vs. nonscience; solve problems using algebra, geometry, vectors, and graphs; synthesize disparate physics topics**PHYS 102**

**Planetary and Stellar Astronomy**

**(3 Credit Hours)**

*Knowledge Area:*Tier 2 Scientific Knowledge

**Outcomes**

Students will demonstrate an understanding of the fundamental knowledge and concepts in astronomy, the qualitative and quantitative reasoning used, and how this science can be applied**PHYS 106**

**Physics of Music**

**(3 Credit Hours)**

*Knowledge Area:*Tier 2 Scientific Knowledge

**Outcomes**

Knowledge of music fundamentals; understand how instruments function; apply physics concepts and experimentation to analyze the production of music and acoustics**PHYS 111**

**College Physics I Lec / Dis**

**(3 Credit Hours)**

*Pre-requisites:*Math Placement Test or MATH 118

*Interdisciplinary Option:*Forensic Science

**Outcomes**

Understanding of analytical description of motion and application of conservation laws; develop scientific insight and proficiency in solving representative problems**PHYS 111L**

**College Physics Laboratory I**

**(1 Credit Hour)**

*Interdisciplinary Option:*Forensic Science

**Outcomes**

Experience and familiarity with basic measuring devices and simple mechanics equipment; Understand measurement errors and their propagation, plotting and interpretation of data, the connection between theory and experiment for selected topics in elementary mechanics**PHYS 112**

**College Physics II Lec/Disc**

**(3 Credit Hours)**

*Pre-requisites:*PHYS 111 or equivalent

*Interdisciplinary Option:*Forensic Science

*Course equivalencies:*PHYS112/PHYS112K/PHYS122

**Outcomes**

Understand and apply electromagnetism to 2- and 3-dimensional problems in physical and biological sciences**PHYS 112L**

**College Physics Lab II**

**(1 Credit Hour)**

*Pre- or co-requisites:*PHYS 112 or PHYS 112K; also prerequisite PHYS 111L; For ESBE, ESCE, and ESEE majors only: Prerequisite or corequisite of PHYS 112K

*Interdisciplinary Option:*Forensic Science

**Outcomes**

Experience and familiarity with DC power supplies, digital multi-meters, function generators, oscilloscopes, mirrors, lenses, and spectrometers; Ability to correlate simple electronic schematic diagrams with actual circuits; Understand the connection between theory and experiment for selected topics in elementary electrical circuits and optics**PHYS 121**

**College Physics I Lec/Dis**

**(3 Credit Hours)**

*Interdisciplinary Option:*Forensic Science

**Outcomes**

Understanding of analytical description of motion and application of conservation laws; develop scientific insight and proficiency in solving representative problems**PHYS 122**

**College Physics II Lec/Dis**

**(3 Credit Hours)**

*Interdisciplinary Option:*Forensic Science

*Course equivalencies:*PHYS112/PHYS112K/PHYS122

**Outcomes**

Understand and apply electromagnetism to 2- and 3-dimensional problems in physical and biological sciences**PHYS 125**

**General Physics I Lec/Dis**

**(4 Credit Hours)**

*Interdisciplinary Option:*Forensic Science

**Outcomes**

Understanding of vectors, forces, Newtonian mechanics related to translational, rotational, and oscillatory motion; thermodynamics**PHYS 125L**

**General Physics Laboratory I**

**(1 Credit Hour)**

*Co-requisites:*PHYS 125

*Interdisciplinary Option:*Forensic Science

**Outcomes**

Experience and familiarity with basic measuring devices and simple mechanics equipment; Understand measurement errors and their propagation, plotting and interpretation of data, the connection between theory and experiment for selected topics in elementary mechanics**PHYS 126**

**General Physics II Lec/Dis**

**(3 Credit Hours)**

*Pre-requisites:*PHYS 125; Corequisites: PHYS 126F, PHYS 126L & MATH 162; Department Consent Required

*Interdisciplinary Option:*Forensic Science

**Outcomes**

Understanding of electrostatics, magnetostatics, time varying currents, resistive, capacitative and inductive elements, electromagnetic and sound waves, geometrical and wave optics, introductory special relativity**PHYS 126F**

**Freshman Projects**

**(1 Credit Hour)**

*Pre-requisites:*PHYS 125; Department Consent Required

**Outcomes**

Students should get a deeper understanding of the material covered in PHYS 125 (mechanics, waves and thermodynamics) and also learn about research methods employed by physicists**PHYS 126L**

**General Physics Laboratory II**

**(1 Credit Hour)**

*Co-requisites:*PHYS 126

*Interdisciplinary Option:*Forensic Science

**Outcomes**

Experience and familiarity with DC power supplies, digital multimeters, function generators, oscilloscopes, mirrors, lenses, and spectrometers; Ability to correlate simple electronic schematic diagrams with actual circuits; Understand the connection between theory and experiment for selected topics in elementary electrical circuits and optics**PHYS 130**

**Introduction to Computational Physics**

**(3 Credit Hours)**

*Pre-requisites:*C- or better in PHYS 125; Restricted to PHYS, TPAM, and BPHY majors; Corequisite: PHYS 126

**Outcomes**

Students should be able to write a Python program to perform numerical calculations in physics and gain computational skills that would be utilized in upper division physics coursework and research**PHYS 235**

**Modern Physics**

**(3 Credit Hours)**

**Outcomes**

Understand the relative nature of space and time; the duality of waves and particles; the microscopic structure of matter and its macroscopic consequences**PHYS 235L**

**Modern Physics Laboratory**

**(1 Credit Hour)**

*Co-requisites:*PHYS 235

**Outcomes**

Students will gain hands on experience and familiarity with experiments from early modern physics, the ability to use spreadsheets and symbolic algebraic software for problem solving and data interpretation, and experience documenting and reporting results including historical background searches**PHYS 266**

**Digital Electronics Lab**

**(3 Credit Hours)**

*Course equivalencies:*X-PHYS266/COMP266

**Outcomes**

Students will gain a working knowledge of digital electronics design and its application to computers, an understanding of CPU design and operation and the ability to document and report experimental results**PHYS 301**

**Mathematical Methods in Physics**

**(3 Credit Hours)**

*Course equivalencies:*X-PHYS301/PHYS271/MATH355

**PHYS 303**

**Electronics I**

**(3 Credit Hours)**

**Outcomes**

Students will understand and manipulate equations and concepts, and gain experience with electronics equipment, plotting and interpretation of data, synthesizing and writing laboratory results, and the formal verbal presentation of results**PHYS 303L**

**Electronics Laboratory**

**(1 Credit Hour)**

**Outcomes**

Students should get a deeper understanding of the material covered in PHYS 303 (Analog and digital electronics) by experimentally verifying many of the concepts covered in that course; Students will also learn to recognize various components and develop confidence in using them**PHYS 310**

**Optics**

**(3 Credit Hours)**

**Outcomes**

Students will gain knowledge of the principles of classical and modern optics, the roll of optics in the development of quantum mechanics and its applications to modern technology**PHYS 310L**

**Optics Lab**

**(1 Credit Hour)**

**Outcomes**

Students should get a deeper understanding of the material covered in PHYS 310 (Geometrical and wave optics) by experimentally verifying many of the concepts covered in that course; Students will also learn to recognize various components and develop confidence in using them**PHYS 314**

**Theoretical Mechanics I**

**(3 Credit Hours)**

**Outcomes**

Students will gain understanding of analytical and numerical methods of mechanics, understanding of principles in dynamics, and experience in applying formalisms of Lagrange and Hamilton to mechanics in preparation for other areas of physics and engineering**PHYS 315**

**Theoretical Mechanics II**

**(3 Credit Hours)**

*Pre-requisites:*PHYS 314

**Outcomes**

Students will gain understanding of analytical and numerical methods of mechanics, and of the laws of dynamics and their applications**PHYS 328**

**Thermal Physical & Statistical Mechanics**

**(3 Credit Hours)**

**Outcomes**

Students will learn to compare thermodynamical versus statistical characterizations of macroscopic systems with applications ranging from analyzing Fermi gases and black body radiation to information theory**PHYS 338**

**Advanced Physics Laboratory**

**(2 Credit Hours)**

**Outcomes**

Students will gain an understanding of experiment design, data analysis, and error estimation in the context of investigating physical principles and using different instrumentation**PHYS 351**

**Electricity and Magnetism I**

**(3 Credit Hours)**

**Outcomes**

Students will gain an understanding of mathematical methods of electrodynamics, of static electricity and magnetism including Coulomb's, Gauss', Ampere's, and Faraday's laws and their applications, and of solutions of Laplace's and Maxwell's equations**PHYS 352**

**Electricity and Magnetism II**

**(3 Credit Hours)**

*Pre-requisites:*PHYS 351

**Outcomes**

Students will gain an understanding of electromagnetic field energy and momentum, Maxwell's equations and their applications including electromagnetic radiation and emission, involving retarded potentials and Lorentz covariance**PHYS 361**

**Quantum Mechanics I**

**(3 Credit Hours)**

**Outcomes**

Students will understand and use separation of variables, finite polynomials, and matrix algebra to solve the Schroedinger equation, explain microscopic structure of matter, and describe philosophical interpretations of quantum mechanics**PHYS 371**

**Biophysics**

**(3 Credit Hours)**

*Pre-requisites:*For Biology and Molecular Biology majors: BIOL 251, (PHYS 112 or 122), and (MATH 132 or 162); For all other majors: PHYS 235 and BIOL 101

**Outcomes**

Students will understand how to apply physical principles and probabilistic analysis toward the study of biological phenomena at molecular and cellular levels**PHYS 380**

**Special Topics in Physics**

**(1-3 Credit Hours)**

*Pre-requisites:*Instructor's permission

**Outcomes**

Students will understand the material of the course and develop an ability to apply the knowledge gained to other contexts**PHYS 381**

**Special Topics in Physics**

**(1-3 Credit Hours)**

*Pre-requisites:*Instructor's permission

**Outcomes**

Students understand the material of the course and develop an ability to apply the knowledge gained to other contexts**PHYS 391**

**Research**

**(1-12 Credit Hours)**

*Co-requisites:*PHYS 126

*Course equivalencies:*PHYS391 / PHYS385 / PHYS386

**Outcomes**

Under the guidance of a faculty member, students study and understand research methods employed by physicists and gain a deeper understanding of a particular area of physics**PHYS 394**

**Argonne Lab Research**

**(3 Credit Hours)**

*Pre-requisites:*Chairperson's permission and acceptance by appropriate program

**Outcomes**

Students will work with a research group at Argonne or other laboratory to understand research methods employed by physicists and get a deeper understanding of a particular area of physics**PHYS 395**

**Argonne Lab Research**

**(3 Credit Hours)**

*Pre-requisites:*Chairperson's permission and acceptance by appropriate program